Gissar experimental research and production site for research and development of water-saving technologies and irrigation techniques
In accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Tajik SSR of May 27, 1987, on the basis of the Gissar operational site, the Ministry of Water Resources of the republic created the Gissar Experimental Research and Production Range (ONPP) for the research and development of water-saving technologies and irrigation techniques and the introduction of finished developments into production. Since 1996, he was transferred to the NPO TajikNIIGiM. Its tasks include strengthening the connection between science and production and improving the qualifications of personnel working in the industry.
The territory of the polygon covers a wide range of slopes (from 1 to 400), has areas with steep slopes and rugged relief. The total area is 16.2 hectares. Here, 20 experimental and experimental production sites were reconstructed and built according to various methods and techniques of irrigation, type of crops, with different relief in relation to the main natural and economic zones of the republic. Previous studies are being developed further.
Beginning in 1969, at the test site of the Ministry of Water Resources of the Tajik SSR, on the initiative of VNIIGiM, tests of a new irrigation technique designed for the foothill regions of the arid zone were carried out. The aim of the work was the economical use of water resources and the involvement of lands with steep slopes in agricultural use adjacent to densely populated valleys. Taking into account the peculiarities of the cultivation of agricultural crops, as well as the slopes of the terrain, the existing ones were improved and new technical means of irrigation were developed.
For irrigation of cotton and vineyards, new designs of underground irrigation pipelines and subsurface irrigation systems have been developed and tested; for horticultural crops, various designs of outlets from underground pipelines and irrigation trays have been tested.
A fundamentally new method of irrigation was tested on cotton and tomatoes – intrasoil-drip irrigation with the help of microporous humidifiers with simultaneous supply of water and fertilizers. Synchronous impulse sprinkling of forage and row crops, drip irrigation of potato pomegranate and other crops were tested on elevated slopes and steep slopes. Experiments on a comparative study of various methods of irrigation of lemons were carried out on the lemonarium trench built for the first time in the conditions of the Gissar valley.
Part of the developments is protected by copyright certificates: №1184484 – a method of building a closed irrigation network; No. 538697 – furrow irrigation method; №671785 – irrigation network; № 821170 – device for welding thermoplastic pipes; 3539777- device for welding pipes from thermoplastics and others.
Experiments and research in pilot plots have been aimed at developing better irrigation technologies that will dramatically reduce waste water and increase yields. When using new schemes with underground irrigation pipelines, surface discharge decreased by 30-40%, the yield increase was 10-15%. The yield of raw cotton with subsurface drip irrigation was 65-80, and of tomatoes – about 900-1100 c / ha, while reducing water consumption by half. With synchronous impulse sprinkling of alfalfa on slopes with a steepness of up to 400, a yield of green mass of about 800-1000 centners / ha was obtained for 5 mows with complete absence of irrigation erosion. With drip irrigation of grapes on steep (up to 400) slopes, the berry yield was 200-240 c / ha and more. With intra-soil irrigation of grapes in flat conditions, a yield of 185 c / ha was obtained on average for 5 years, which is 30% higher than with surface irrigation, and water savings due to the exclusion of surface discharge amounted to 30-35%.
The main part of the mentioned developments has undergone pilot and production implementation:
-an improved design of an underground irrigation pipeline in the “Constitution of the USSR” farm in the Yavan region on an area of 20 hectares, in the “Samgar” state farm in the Proletarsky district – 2000 hectares, in the “Pobeda” farm in the Rudaki region – 20 ha;
-drip irrigation – in the village “Comintern” in the Rudaki district on an area of 18 hectares, in the Dzh.Balkhi region – 5 hectares, and local micro-irrigation in the d / v “40 years of October” in the J. Balkh district – 4 ha;
-under-crown sprinkling of horticultural crops in the d / v “Comintern” district of Rudaki on an area of 3 ha, in the d / v them. Lenin J. Balkh region – 6 hectares;
-synchronous impulse sprinkling of forage crops – in APO “Khovaling” on an area of 150 hectares, in the Frunze MHP of the Gissar region -20 hectares, in the village named after Lenin J., Balkh region -22 hectares.
A number of organizations are involved in the implementation of completed developments in production. So, at one time, Tajikgiprovodkhoz, according to the initial requirements drawn up by VNIIGiM and its branch, designed, and Glavtadzhikvodstroy started construction of irrigation facilities with a closed network of irrigation pipelines, with drip irrigation and synchronous impulse sprinkling. Experience shows that such a structure of cooperation between scientific and industrial organizations is the most effective form of transition from scientific research to the creation of experimental production sites.
In the case of completed developments, an important place belongs to the preparation of regulatory documents. At one time, taking into account the results of research at the Gissar test site, VNIIGiM and its Tajik branch, together with Tajikgiprovodkhoz, Soyuzvodoproekt and other organizations, developed over 10 standards. Only in recent years have been drawn up “Recommendations for the operation of the system of synchronous impulse irrigation in the mountainous conditions of the arid zone”; VSN 33.222.01- “On-farm network with a surface irrigation method”; manuals to SNiP “Drip irrigation”, “Synchronous-pulse sprinkling,” Catalog of standard sets of polymer products for drip irrigation systems “,”Recommendations for improving the technology of irrigation of agricultural crops in Tajikistan on the basis of the organization of concentrated irrigation with programming the crop” (1985).
To further improve the educational and methodological base of the State Enterprise TajikNIIGiM under the scientific guidance of prof. Sheinkina G.Yu in collaboration with the Ministry of Water Resources of the Tajik SSR and Glavtadzhikvodstroy, for the period up to 2000, a systematic approach to the organization and implementation of research and development on water-saving irrigation technologies was developed. The main areas of cotton and related crops, alfalfa, cereals, vegetables, vineyards and orchards.