Practical conference dedicated to the decade of action Water for sustainable development “Methods and prospects for sustainable development” May 25, 2017. Taking into account the solution of complex socio-economic, as well as environmental and political issues, Tajikistan is developing to provide the population with prosperity, security and sustainable development.
Tajikistan strengthens relations with foreign countries and from the day of gaining independence of its state is considered a full member of the UN and other foreign organizations. Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and shares borders with Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and China. The country’s territory is 142.1 thousand hectares, of which 93% are mountains, and 7% – plains.
The population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 01.01.2016 is more than 8.2 million people, 26.4% of which live in cities and 73.6% in rural areas. Population growth per year is 2.5%. Water resources are the main source and account for 55.4% of the waters of the Aral Sea basin.
Climate change is foreseen in Tajikistan as well as in other countries of the world. Over the course of 65 years, the average annual temperature in the valleys increased to 0.7-1.2 ° C, in the mountainous regions and highlands, 0.1-0.70 C, and in cities, 1.2 -1.9 ° C.
Tajikistan is directly influenced by the environmental events of the Aral Sea and within the borders of countries that discharge greenhouse gases (China, Russia, India, etc.)
Access to drinking water in Tajikistan is 52.3%, of which 44% of the urban population and 5% of the rural population have access to drinking water through sanitary security. In the republic, up to 90% of the country’s agricultural production comes from irrigated lands.
Development of the country’s economy in accordance with the National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period up to 2015, the Strategy for Poverty Reduction in 2010-2012 and other relevant policy documents have been fulfilled for the Millennium Development Goal. Environmental protection, sustainable design and disaster mitigation are integral parts of Tajikistan’s poverty reduction strategy.
Tajikistan’s policy is mainly aimed at the development of hydropower, which is the main base. The contribution of hydropower to the country’s energy balance is 98%. Tajikistan accounts for 4% of the world’s hydropower resources, which is equal to 527 billion / hour in year. Currently, 3.2% of their norm is used. In the last Decade, the Sangtuda-1 and Sangtuda-2 hydroelectric power stations with a capacity of 670 thousand kW / h and 212 thousand kW / hour were put into operation. The development of hydropower can clearly interest all economies and industries in Tajikistan.
Water is a factor in the origin of the relationship.
With the proposal of the Republic of Tajikistan on the part of the Founder of Peace and National Unity, the Leader of the Nation – President of the Republic of Tajikistan, respected Emomali Rahmon, with the support of the UN General Assembly, was announced, 2003 “Year of Fresh Water”, 2005-2015. Decade of Action “Water for Life”, 2013 Year of Water Cooperation and Decade of Action “Water for Sustainable Development” (2018-2028).
The glaciers of Tajikistan have 845 km3 of water, which is 7 times more than the annual volume of the out flowing Aral Sea basin. Under the influence of international climate change, glaciers in Tajikistan have decreased in area by 30% and by volume by 20%. A 5-15% decrease in wastewater from the Amu Darya is forecasted due to the state of discharges and international climate change.
On average, the formation of all rivers in Tajikistan is equal to 64 km 3 of water per year, which is 55.4% of the wastewater in the Aral Sea basin. More than 46.3 km3 of water is formed in the lakes of Tajikistan, of which 20 km3 is fresh water.
The underground water resources of Tajikistan are 18.7 km 3, which is approximately 42% of the total volume formed in the Central Asian countries – the territory of the Aral Sea basin.
The main use of water in Tajikistan is irrigated agricultural land, which their contribution is from 84 to 94% of the total volume of water used, water supply, utilities 8.5%, industry 4.5% and fisheries 3%.
One of the most important uses of water is its provision for hydropower, which is of great social and economic importance.
In Tajikistan, land suitable for irrigation is 1573 thousand hectares, of which 753 thousand hectares is irrigated land, including 37-43% are provided with pumping equipment and this territory is home to 2 million people. In Tajikistan, there are 10 reservoirs with a total volume of 15,353 km3, 23.9% and wastewater in the formation territory, which is regulated taking into account 17.5% of neighboring countries flowing from wastewater inflows.
Nurek and Karakum reservoirs are complex and seasonal, Nurek 10.5 km3 carrying capacity and Karakum 4.1 km3. In Tajikistan, the volume of reservoirs can reach 66.8 km3, of which 56.6% is the annual waste water of the Aral Sea basin.
This factor contributes to the reasons for the protection of Central Asia and other countries from drought, low water, floods, changes in the impact of the effects of climate, and other adverse environmental and social conditions associated with water.